Sports Injury Prevention for Baby Boomers
While there may be no single fountain of youth, you can slow down the aging process by staying physically active. Regular exercise enhances muscle and joint function, keeps bones strong, and decreases your risk of heart attack and stroke.
Here are some tips developed by the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons that can help you exercise safely.
Always take time to warm up and stretch before physical activity. Research studies have shown that cold muscles are more prone to injury. Warm up with jumping jacks, stationary cycling or running or walking in place for 3 to 5 minutes. Then slowly and gently stretch, holding each stretch for 30 seconds. Do not stretch cold muscles.
Just like warming up, it is important to cool down. Gentle stretching after physical activity is very important to prepare your body for the next time you exercise. It will make recovery from exercise easier.
Consistent Exercise Program
Avoid the “weekend warrior” syndrome. Compressing your exercise into 2 days sets you up for trouble and does not increase your fitness level. Try to get at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity every day. If you are truly pressed for time, you can break it up into 10-minute chunks. Remember that moderate physical activity can include walking the dog, working in the garden, playing with the kids and taking the stairs instead of an elevator. Parking on the far end of a parking lot will increase the distance you have to walk between your car and your destination.
Take sports lessons. Whether you are a beginner or have been playing a sport for a long time, lessons are a worthwhile investment. Proper form and instruction reduce the chance of developing an “overuse” injury like tendinitis or a stress fracture.
Lessons at varying levels of play for many sports are offered by local park districts and athletic clubs.
Invest in good equipment. Select the proper shoes for your sport and use them only for that sport. When the treads start to look worn or the shoes are no longer as supportive, it is time to replace them.
Listen to Your Body
As you age, you may find that you are not as flexible as you once were or that you cannot tolerate the same types of activities that you did years ago. While no one is happy about getting older, you will be able to prevent injury by modifying your activity to accommodate your body’s needs.
Use the Ten Percent Rule
When changing your activity level, increase it in increments of no more than 10% per week. If you normally walk 2 miles a day and want to increase your fitness level, do not try to suddenly walk 4 miles. Slowly build up to more miles each week until you reach your higher goal. When strength training, use the 10% rule as your guide and increase your weights gradually.
Develop a balanced fitness program that incorporates cardiovascular exercise, strength training, and flexibility. In addition to providing a total body workout, a balanced program will keep you from getting bored and lessen your chances of injury.
Add activities and new exercises cautiously. Whether you have been sedentary or are in good physical shape, do not try to take on too many activities at one time. It is best to add no more than one or two new activities per workout.
If you have or have had a sports or orthopaedic injury like tendinitis, arthritis, a stress fracture, or low back pain, consult your Physiotherapist who can help design a fitness routine to promote wellness and minimize the chance of injury.
People who exercise have better mental fitness, and a new imaging study from UC Davis Health System shows why. Intense exercise increases levels of two common neurotransmitters — glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA — that are responsible for chemical messaging within the brain.
Published in this week’s issue of The Journal of Neuroscience, the finding offers new insights into brain metabolism and why exercise could become an important part of treating depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders linked with deficiencies in neurotransmitters, which drive communications between the brain cells that regulate physical and emotional health.
“Major depressive disorder is often characterized by depleted glutamate and GABA, which return to normal when mental health is restored,” said study lead author Richard Maddock, professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. “Our study shows that exercise activates the metabolic pathway that replenishes these neurotransmitters.”
The research also helps solve a persistent question about the brain, an energy-intensive organ that consumes a lot of fuel in the form of glucose and other carbohydrates during exercise. What does it do with that extra fuel?
“From a metabolic standpoint, vigorous exercise is the most demanding activity the brain encounters, much more intense than calculus or chess, but nobody knows what happens with all that energy,” Maddock said. “Apparently, one of the things it’s doing is making more neurotransmitters.”
The striking change in how the brain uses fuel during exercise has largely been overlooked in brain health research. While the new findings account for a small part of the brain’s energy consumption during exercise, they are an important step toward understanding the complexity of brain metabolism. The research also hints at the negative impact sedentary lifestyles might have on brain function, along with the role the brain might play in athletic endurance.
“It is not clear what causes people to ‘hit the wall’ or get suddenly fatigued when exercising,” Maddock said. “We often think of this point in terms of muscles being depleted of oxygen and energy molecules. But part of it may be that the brain has reached its limit.”
To understand how exercise affects the brain, the team studied 38 healthy volunteers. Participants exercised on a stationary bicycle, reaching around 85 percent of their predicted maximum heart rate. To measure glutamate and GABA, the researchers conducted a series of imaging studies using a powerful 3-tesla MRI to detect nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, which can identify several compounds based on the magnetic behavior of hydrogen atoms in molecules.
The researchers measured GABA and glutamate levels in two different parts of the brain immediately before and after three vigorous exercise sessions lasting between eight and 20 minutes, and made similar measurements for a control group that did not exercise. Glutamate or GABA levels increased in the participants who exercised, but not among the non-exercisers. Significant increases were found in the visual cortex, which processes visual information, and the anterior cingulate cortex, which helps regulate heart rate, some cognitive functions and emotion. While these gains trailed off over time, there was some evidence of longer-lasting effects.
“There was a correlation between the resting levels of glutamate in the brain and how much people exercised during the preceding week,” Maddock said. “It’s preliminary information, but it’s very encouraging.”
These findings point to the possibility that exercise could be used as an alternative therapy for depression. This could be especially important for patients under age 25, who sometimes have more side effects from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), anti-depressant medications that adjust neurotransmitter levels.
For follow-up studies, Maddock and the team hope to test whether a less-intense activity, such as walking, offers similar brain benefits. They would also like to use their exercise-plus-imaging method on a study of patients with depression to determine the types of exercise that offer the greatest benefit.
“We are offering another view on why regular physical activity may be important to prevent or treat depression,” Maddock said. “Not every depressed person who exercises will improve, but many will. It’s possible that we can help identify the patients who would most benefit from an exercise prescription.”
So we all know that feeling that we get after exercise – we feel generally happier, less stressed, less anxious and also sleep better. Exercise produces a rush of happy hormones we also know as endorphins. So what are these endorphins and why do they make us feel happy?
Endorphins are chemicals that are produced in our brains in response to stress or pain. Running, doing a hard workout, playing a sport or any exercise at all that increases our bodies stress response has the ability to make our brains release endorphins. The endorphins have the ability to travel through our neural networks as a neurotransmitter. One thing we do know about endorphins is that they make us feel really good. So how does this work then?
A part of the brain called the hypothalamus sends a signal to increase endorphin uptake through our bodies neural network when we subject ourselves to certain activities like exercise, sex, eat certain foods or experience pain. The endorphins then attach themselves to specific receptor sites within our neural network – these are called opioid receptors. These special receptors have the ability to block out pain signals and also to increase that euphoric happy feeling we get after we exercise. It is the same receptors that are locked onto when we take pain relief in the form of opiates.
Once we achieve a positive result in something we do, either though through exercise or simple activities like sticking to a plan you’ve made, your brain will also release another happy hormone called dopamine. Dopamine is responsible for us feeling addicted to pleasure seeking behaviors. By setting regular and achievable exercise goals that you reach it is highly possible to make exercise the trigger for your brain to release dopamine.
Serotonin is another one of our brains happy hormones that act as a natural anti-depressant. When we exercise serotonin levels in our brain increase and so does your level of happiness.
I know all these terms may seem confusing but there is another very important happy hormone called oxytocin. Oxytocin is released when we feel loved, cared for and connected to others. Your brain will also release oxytocin when you are kind to others.
So no matter how hard it may seem to get yourself moving on some days, putting one foot in front of the other and pushing yourself to move and exercise is not only good for your muscles and joints but also stimulates your brain. You’ll produce your very own happy hormones, reduces your stress levels and have you wanting to repeat it all over again next time. Give your fellow team mates, friends and family an encouraging kind words regularly as well- it will not only help them feel happy but will increase your happiness as well.
Saturdays at 3pm in Saanichton
We are pleased to offer some great courses at Saanichton Physio. Our Athletic Therapist Peter Schreurs is also a certified yoga instructor and facilitates these courses in our private, relaxing clinic space
Hatha yoga: Discover your Inner balance
Hatha is a potent alignment-oriented practice that emphasizes the forms and actions within yoga postures. Act to help bind the mind and body through the practice of traditional asanas with modern body awareness. Emphasis is placed on core strength, flexibility and balance as well, as concentration and breath control. This class is based on physical postures (asanas), deep breathing, mindfulness and listening to the body. Any and all levels of students are welcome, please bring your own mat and water bottle.
Length 60 min
Core Strength: Find your Inner Core
Core strength is the foundation upon which we find our seat, and enables us to move through our daily lives, as well as the activities which we like best. Learn how to use the various elements of your core to; increase your strength, increase your body awareness, and decrease your chance of injury. Whether you are looking to increase performance, or are dealing with an injury, this class will help you on your path. Any and all levels of students are welcome, please bring your own mat and water bottle.
Length 45 min
*cost $10.00 drop in or 5 passes for $40.00