WEIGHT TRAINING INJURIES
Improper weight-training techniques can lead to weight training injuries. The most common areas to be injured are the back, shoulders, and knees.
Back sprains and strains most commonly result from improper lifting technique when performing exercises such as bench presses, deadlifts, and rows. Sprains involve stretching of ligaments while strains involve stretching of muscles or tendons. Initial treatment involves the R.I.C.E. method (i.e. Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation). Assessment and treatment by your physiotherapist are also valuable. At Saanich Physio your Physiotherapist can help you minimise the risk of obtaining weight training injuries.
Training Tip: The risk of back injuries can be reduced by maintaining a neutral spine and avoiding flexing or extending the lower back under heavy load.
Lifting weights overhead incorrectly can lead to injuries such as shoulder impingement syndrome and rotator cuff damage. Shoulder impingement syndrome is when swelling and inflammation of structures in, and around the shoulder results in pain in the front and side of the shoulder/upper arm. Rotator cuff damage causes pain and weakness of shoulder movement. Treatment for these conditions may include physiotherapy and anti-inflammatory medication in minor cases; and cortisone injections and potentially surgery in more serious cases.
Training Tip: The risk of shoulder injuries increases with excessive repetitions. Ensure you also train other body parts to give your shoulders adequate recovery time between training sessions.
Repetitive knee exercises such as squats, lunges, deep knee bends, jumps, knee extension and leg lifts can cause pain at the front of the knee. Injury to the patellar tendon (the tendon that connects the kneecap to the shin bone) can occur with overuse. Small tears develop in the tendon leading to pain just below the kneecap. Treatment in the form of physiotherapy and a patellar tendon strap often helps to reduce symptoms and your doctor may also recommend anti-inflammatory medications.
Training Tip: Ensure that your kneecap tracks correctly (i.e. over the outside of the foot) during squat and lunge exercises.
If you feel pain from weight lifting in the gym seek treatment and corrective strategies from us at Saanich Physio. The longer you keep training with an injury or small niggles that can turn into bigger injuries, the longer your recovery time will be. Seek help early and keep yourself in the gym – there is no need to suffer from weight training injuries.
Aasa U, Svartholm I, Andersson F, et al. Injuries among weightlifters and powerlifters: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med 2017; 51:211-220.
Kerr ZY, Collins CL, Comstock RD. Epidemiology of weight training-related injuries presenting to United States emergency departments, 1990 to 2007. Am J Sports Med 2010; 38(4): 765-71.
Mazur LJ, Yetman RJ, Risser WL. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods. Sports Med 1993; 16(1): 57-63.
Siewe J et al. Injuries and Overuse Syndromes in Competitive and Elite Bodybuilding. Int J Sports Med 2014; 35: 943-948.
Siewe J et al. Injuries and Overuse Syndromes in Powerlifting. Int J Sports Med 2011; 32: 703-711.
Weisenthal BM, Beck CA et al. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes. The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine 2014; 2(4): 1-7.
Saturdays at 3pm in Saanichton
We are pleased to offer some great courses at Saanichton Physio. Our Athletic Therapist Peter Schreurs is also a certified yoga instructor and facilitates these courses in our private, relaxing clinic space
Hatha yoga: Discover your Inner balance
Hatha is a potent alignment-oriented practice that emphasizes the forms and actions within yoga postures. Act to help bind the mind and body through the practice of traditional asanas with modern body awareness. Emphasis is placed on core strength, flexibility and balance as well, as concentration and breath control. This class is based on physical postures (asanas), deep breathing, mindfulness and listening to the body. Any and all levels of students are welcome, please bring your own mat and water bottle.
Length 60 min
Core Strength: Find your Inner Core
Core strength is the foundation upon which we find our seat, and enables us to move through our daily lives, as well as the activities which we like best. Learn how to use the various elements of your core to; increase your strength, increase your body awareness, and decrease your chance of injury. Whether you are looking to increase performance, or are dealing with an injury, this class will help you on your path. Any and all levels of students are welcome, please bring your own mat and water bottle.
Length 45 min
*cost $10.00 drop in or 5 passes for $40.00
Okay. So you’ve decided to embark on a fitness regime in order to shed some kilo’s, get fit or just for fun. New gym membership. Check. New sparkling runners. Check. Gym gear (a bit tight at the moment). Check. Alright, let me at that treadmill/rower/crosstrainer/zumba class!
“Hold on a second – what about your warm-up!”
“Warm-up” you scoff, “you’ve got to be kidding. No time to waste on that”.
Sorry folks, but the warm-up is an important part of your exercise routine and plays a crucial role in preparing your body for exercise. Skimp on the warm-up and you run the risk of injury during exercise or sport, as well as reduced performance levels.
“But what’s so important about doing a few stretches?” I hear you ask.
A proper warm-up involves more than just standing around stretching and talking. It prepares your body for the exercise/sport it is about to undertake and should simulate the actions involved.
The benefits of a warm-up are:
1) Increase in core body temperature
2) Preparation of muscles, tendons and joints for the stresses/strains of activity
3) Increase in nerve impulse conduction to muscles
4) Increase in blood flow to muscles
5) Increase in respiratory (breathing) rate
Let’s have a closer look at each of these benefits.
1. Increased core body temperature – this is important as it prepares the body for the change in activity level from being sedentary to exercising and gets the body into a ‘ready’ state. This also results in an increase in muscle temperature which makes them more pliable, supple and loose.
2. Prepares muscles, tendons and joints for activity – each sporting activity stresses the body in different ways so it is vital to prepare in a way that simulates these activities. For example, if you are a basketballer you need to include in your warm-up the jumping, running and change of direction that occurs during the game. If you pump weights at the gym, it is vital to perform a warm-up set of each exercise at a lower weight to allow your body to adjust to each specific movement.
3. Increased nerve conduction – muscles that are in a ready or aroused state react quicker and more efficiently than muscles that aren’t prepared for activity.
4. Increased blood flow to muscles – through increased blood flow there is an increase in oxygen flow to muscles as well as nutrient flow. This increased flow allows for improved performance
5. Increased respiratory rate – prepares the lungs for an increase in activity level and improves oxygenation of the blood flowing to the muscles.
Okay, so now that we know why we are performing a warm-up, what should it involve?
One common misconception out there these days is the importance of stretching as part of a warm-up. Note I said part of a warm-up.
Stretching on its own does not constitute a warm-up – rather it forms a critical part of one.
An effective warm-up has a number of very important key elements, which work together to minimize the likelihood of sports injury and prepare the individual for physical activity.
These key elements are:
1) The general warm-up
2) Static stretching
3) Sport specific warm-up
4) Dynamic stretching
1. The general warm-up
This consists of light physical activity such as walking, jogging, easy swimming, stationary bike, skipping or easy aerobics. The intensity and duration of the general warm-up is dictated by the fitness level of the participating athlete. For the average person, this part of the warm-up should last between 5 and 10 minutes and result in a light sweat.
2. Static stretching
Yes! Static stretching. This is a very safe and effective form of basic stretching. There is a limited threat of injury and is beneficial for overall flexibility. All the major muscle groups should be included for a period of 5 to 10 minutes.
Debate has raged about whether static stretching should be part of a warm-up and some studies have shown that static stretching can have an adverse effect on muscle contraction speed and therefore performance. It is for this reason that static stretching is performed early in the warm-up and always followed by sports specific drills and dynamic stretching. It is important these first two elements are completed properly as it allows the more vigorous and specific activities of elements three and four to then be performed.
3. Sport specific warm-up
In this part, you are specifically preparing the body for the demands of your particular sport or activity. During this part of the warm-up, more vigorous activities should be employed. Activities should reflect the type of movements and actions which will be required during the activity.
4. Dynamic stretching
Finally the warm-up should finish with a series of dynamic stretches. Caution should be taken with this form of stretching as it involves controlled, soft bouncing or swinging motions to take a particular body part past it’s normal range of motion. The force or the bounce of the swing is gradually increased but should never become radical or uncontrolled. These exercises should also be specific to the sport or activity.
Another important factor to keep in mind when undertaking any new exercise regime, is the time it takes for the body to adapt to training. If you have had a period of time away from sport or activity, then your body won’t be used to the stresses and strains put on it from exercise. It can take up to 4 to 6 weeks for your muscles, tendons and joints to become adjusted to the movements involved in your sport or activity.
During this period it is advisable to start with low to moderate intensity exercise which gradually builds over time. Heading straight up the red or blue arrow as your first exercise session in 3 or 4 months isn’t a great idea. Starting out with flat walks or jogging and gradually increasing time and intensity is a better way to start. After 4 to 6 weeks you will be at the stage where you can tackle more intense sessions.
The same goes for weight training. Starting with lighter weights and more repetitions will allow your tendons and joints in particular, to adapt to lifting load. Going too heavy too soon can lead to tendon injuries or severe muscle and joint soreness.
Ok so your shoulder has been hurting for a while and your Physio has diagnosed you with a Rotator Cuff injury. What the hell is a rotator cuff? How do I get rid of this pain!?
Firstly, the rotator cuff is a group of four muscles which help to stabilise the shoulder. The shoulder is a ball and socket joint, similar to the hip, however the shoulder has a shallow socket in comparison. What the shoulder lacks in stability it makes up for in mobility, generally speaking, a healthy shoulder has almost 360 degrees of movement so it needs help from the surrounding muscles to maintain stability through movement. There is also another structure inside the shoulder joint called the labrum, which helps to deepen the joint and provide stability.
How does my Rotator Cuff get injured?
Rotator cuff injuries usually occur either acutely (immediate sharp pain) or over time (gradual increasing dull ache). Acute rotator cuff injuries can often involve a tearing of the rotator cuff tendons and leads to pain and weakness of the shoulder. Gradual onset of shoulder pain can be associated with repetitive overhead movements, which can lead to smaller tears in the tendon and inflammation around this area.
One of the main factors which can influence shoulder pain is the position of the shoulder. The further forward the humeral head (the ball) sits in the socket, the more compression of the tendon occurs and leads to injury.
How can I fix it?
Having your shoulder properly assessed by a qualified Physiotherapist is the first step in diagnosing a Rotator Cuff injury. Investigations such as Ultrasound or MRI may be relevant if the Physiotherapist feels there is significant injury. For acute rotator cuff tears, a small period of immobilisation in a sling or in some cases, just with some tape, will help settle the pain. Once pain and inflammation are under control then you need to get the shoulder moving and gradually strengthen the rotator cuff tendons and surrounding muscles.
For the gradual onset type shoulder pain there is usually a biomechanical cause for the loading of the tendons. Thorough assessment by a qualified Physiotherapist is a must to get to the bottom of your shoulder pain. Initially settling down the pain and inflammation around the tendons and encouraging gentle pain free movement is the first step. Then gradually increasing the load in the shoulder until the strength is back to normal
How can I prevent this from happening in the future?
Continuation of the strength and flexibility exercises prescribed by your Physiotherapist will help decrease the likelihood of re-occurrence. Identifying aggravating positions i.e. overhead movements or reaching in awkward positions will also decrease the likelihood of re-injury. If your job is a relatively sedentary and requires hours of sitting at a time, trying to break up your day with standing/walking will help, also an ergonomic assessment to ensure your workspace is properly set up to suit you will help ease the stress on your shoulders/neck.